Doctor of philosophy. Leading scientific officer of the Institute of Philosphy, Sociology and Law National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan
When researching the global problems of mankind, it is important that the historical events are conveyed with truthful foundation. At initial glance, trustworthy coverage of facts is the prerogative of historical science, yet it is not always the case. Sometimes the facts reach the public mind in distorted forms. In such cases public foundation becomes precarious, cultural strata are erased, and the future generations cannot learn a lesson from the past. Without knowledge of the past, they cannot rely on successful future, their lives flee as “brief occurrences of mistakes”, constructed on historical tragedies of nations. The point here is about genocide, ethnic cleansing, and deportation — the tragedy of which is aggravated by the fact that the public is being misled through informational deception.
In order to fulfill their civic duty in front of the international community and to prevent cultural crisis, contemporary scientists and specialists are faced with obligation of truthfully depicting the facts. The truthful fact is that thousands of innocent people of Azerbaijan have been subjected to genocide from the Armenian side, and many Azerbaijanis have been taken as hostages and/or deported from their native lands.
The issues of Azerbaijani IDPs and refugees, Azerbaijani districts occupied by Armenia, environmental pollution of Azerbaijani monuments, and other problems related to Armenian ambitions and crimes, are at the center of international community’s attention and among the most topical studies of researchers.
It should be noted, however, that over too long period of time these problems have been treated with indifference and disregard, and the international community remained unaware. The opportunity to identify and research all criminal acts, that were committed against the Azerbaijani people, appeared only after Azerbaijan obtained its independence, its sovereignty, and after the return of Heydar Aliyev to the power upon popular demand.
The national leader H. Aliyev was a manager with rich, comprehensive and in-depth knowledge of history. He devoted special consideration for the unbiased research, study and advocacy of native history, and took loving care of this most important subject-area. H. Aliyev’s efforts gave strong impetus for the development of historical science in Azerbaijan, Decrees from the USSR times were uncovered, which served to instruct mass deportations of Azerbaijanis from their historical, ethnic lands in 1948-1953, 18 December 1997, and genocide of 26 March of 1998. In accordance with the above-mentioned Decrees, a targeted policy of ethnic cleansing and genocide was implemented during the past two centuries in Caucasus. As the result, the Azerbaijani nation suffered the entire burden of the tragedy and mass annihilation. Armenian Dashnaks have actively supported the policy of annihilating the Azerbaijani population.
The policy of stage-by-stage deportation of Azerbaijanis from their native lands was implemented with the efforts of Armenian Dashnaks. They provoked and stirred up the ethnic violence, destroyed historical and cultural monuments of Azerbaijan.
Disclosing the events preceding the genocide of Azerbaijanis, in our opinion, is among the most critical arguments in defense of national interests in front of global community, at international disputes and discussions.
Armenian separatism, terrorism and genocide must be condemned and prevented by all means.
Let us examine these three notions:
1. “Separatism” comes from the French word “separatisme” and from Latin “separatus”. In Dall’s wordbook, it is interpreted as “separate”, “special”, “private”, “tending to separate from the majority”, i.e. separation of compactly residing ethnic minority from the state with the aim of obtaining the right of autonomy.
2. “Terrorism”, in translation from the Latin “terrere”, in most general sense, means terrorizing an individual or a group of individuals through violence.
The most serious crime of international level is the international terrorism. It represents the array of socially dangerous acts of certain individuals and organizations, targeted at obtaining political and other goals through administering explosions and other acts of international significance that threatens the well-being of people.
Acts of international terrorism cause meaningless deaths among people.
They disrupt normal diplomatic functioning of the states and their representatives and create obstacles for international contacts, meeting, as well as for transport lines between the countries. Such acts are used as the means of political struggle by relatively more reactionary groups, parties and criminal organizations.
3. The word “genocide” comes from Greek “genos” (kin, tribe) and Latin “caedo” (killing).
In international law, “genocide” is one of the gravest crimes against humanity. Genocide targets the annihilation of certain groups of population based on racial, national, ethnic or religious characteristics. Through genocide, the conditions are intentionally created, such that are intended for the physical destruction of the named groups in whole or in part. Such crimes were carried out on a mass scale during the Hitler regime, throughout the Second World War. In 1948 the international convention on “the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide” was adopted, which laid out the international criminal liability for the individuals that are found guilty of committing genocide.
It must be noted that the genocide, organized by Armenia against the Azerbaijani population, had reached its objective.
As attested by the information sources, in order to carry out separatist, terrorist acts and acts of genocide in different countries the Armenian Lobby has established organizations, parties – “Armenakan”, “Gnchak”, “Dashnaktsutyun”; terrorist groups – “Avengers for Armenian ‘Genocide’”, “DRO” and its sub-groups “DRO-8”, “DRO-88”, DRO-888”, “DRO-8888”; “Secret Armenian Liberation Army” (SALA), “Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia” (ASALA), “Armenian Liberation Movement”, “Armenian Liberation Front”, “Group Orly”, “Groups (Commandos) of Justice for Armenian ‘Genocide’”, “Union of Armenians”, “Democratic Front”, “Apostol”.
On 28August 1993 the representatives of ASALA declared that they would not allow the laying of “Baku-Tbilis-Ceyhan Panturkist pipeline”. In February 2001 the ASALA established another organization “Gegaron”, the aim of which was to conduct terrorist acts against political leaders, diplomats and businesspeople of Turkish origin in the territories of South Caucasus and Central Asia.
Beginning from the early ages the Armenian youth is brought up in the spirit of chauvinism, soaked with hatred towards Azerbaijanis.
Political orientation of criminal Armenian activities was described with minute precision by German journalist Wilhelm Liebknecht in “Vorwärts” newspaper in 1885. In the article it was mentioned that the Armenians in Tbilisi published in “Mshak” newspaper a call to slaughter the Muslims in their native residence areas and to populate their places instead with Armenians from the Arabian Peninsula.
That call explains the actions of Armenian terrorist organization “Gnchakin”, which resulted in brutal killings of more than 65,000 unarmed, peaceful Azerbaijani people in Turkish province in 1890-1892.
In 1905 “an inferno was organized in Shusha and it is not clear what more miseries will befall on Azerbaijanis” (“The Latest News” Newspaper, No. 7, 1906).
The inferno for Azerbaijanis, organized by the Armenians
The chief ideologist of Bolshevik and Armenian terrorists was the “internationalist” S. Shaumyan. He was malevolent towards the Azerbaijanis and insulted them with such derogative phrases as “Tatar (Azerbaijani) mob”, “ignorant Tatar crowd”, “gang of bandits”, “Tatar hoodlums” and so on (Shaumyan S.G. Selected Works. M., 1978, vol. I, pp 119, 129, 185; vol. II, pp. 216 etc).
The Soviet historians presented the March tragedy of 1918 as “a civil war”, “Musavat’s counter-revolutionary rebellion”, as if incited by the Musavatists to overthrow the Soviet regime in Baku. However, Azerbaijani researchers have unearthed and analyzed numerous archival materials, that were previously inaccessible, as well as the materials of print media of those years. Due to the democratic processes currently under way in Azerbaijan Republic, it became possible to openly state the true context of March events, to classify them as no less than genocide inflicted on the Azerbaijani people, and to name the main culprits of that bloodbath, among whom the first name is S. Shaumyan.
Thus, the Armenian-run genocide against the Azerbaijanis was committed in March 1918 in Shamakhi and Guba, “accidents” were organized, and particular cruelty was demonstrated in Karabakh, Zangezur, Nakhchivan, Lankaran and other regions. It was the subject of M.A. Rasulzade’s article titled “Unforgettable Tragedy”, which was published in “Azerbaijan” Newspaper on 31st of March of 1919 in memory of the first anniversary of March events (quoted from the book “Historical Records on March Atrocities”, Baku, 1997, pg. 103, in Azerbaijani): “The act of cleansing Baku from Azerbaijanis – from innocent Azerbaijani population of Baku and other cities of Azerbaijan during the March days of 1918. The entire sequence of following events is the confirmation of it.” During the depicted time, due to the shutdown of Baku-Tiflis railroad, several thousands of armed Armenians were gathered in Baku, while returning from the war front. Moreover, at the same time thousands of well-armed militants of Dashnaktsutyun Party were present in Baku. Shaumyan was well informed about the zealous nationalistic and counter-revolutionary orientation of Dashnak policy. He was supposed to prevent their arrival in the city. However, it did not happen.
“On the night from March 30 to 31, 1918, the shooting erupted in Baku. Representatives of Muslim parties approached the Executive Committee of Baku Soviets on March 31 at 16:00, with the plea to obtain guns, but A. Japaridze refused them. At the end of the day on March 31, Soviet (6,000 men) and Armenian (7,000 men) troops secured their positions from Balakhani Street through parapet wall till the Boulevard. Attacks on the unarmed Azerbaijani quarters commenced at 22:00 on March 31. The united Armenian-Bolshevik troops acted with grave cruelty, without taking any pity on children, women, or the elderly. At 10:00 on April 1 the Headquarters of Baku Revolutionary Committee (Hotel “Astoria” on Morskoy Street) issued the order to Bolshevik-Dashnak militants to use heavy artillery against the local population. At 17:00 hours, during the council with A. Japaridze, the Muslims were given an ultimatum.”
In order to shoot down the Azerbaijani population who tried to flee running, posts with machine-guns were installed in advance at different sites throughout the city. The Bolshevik gang, whose central headquarters was located at the house of Komissar Martikyan and which was headed by N. Ananchenko, was positioned on the streets of Mariyinskaya, Bazarnaya, Nikolaevskaya, as well as at the hotel “Metropol” and at the editorial office of “Kaspiy” Newspaper. The members of this gang massacred everyone – the elderly, women, children, who were running towards the port, and those who were trying to abandon Icheri Sheher (the castle of old Baku). At the intersection of Nikolaevskaya and Bazarnaya Streets there were brigades of machine-gunners, who mostly consisted of “Red Guardsmen” and among whom were Mikoyan, Artak, Akopov, Manucharov, Karamov, Agamirov, and others, awaiting to shoot down the “Musavatists”, i.e. the local Muslim-Turkic population, from all directions. After crushing and destroying other Muslim quarters, on the night of March 31 the operation “Icheri sheher” was commenced. The “Red Guardsmen”, led by Ananchenko and including Shaumyan, Ovchiyan, Galstyan, Sarkisyan, Kaber-Kory, Artak, Akopov, Manucharov and other Dashnaks, participated actively in the operation of storming the castle.
Afterwards, the main conductor and “screen-writer” of the March atrocities Shaumyan made the first attempt at falsifying the genocide of Muslims by calling it a “civil war” and understating the counts of those murdered. In his report, which was sent to Moscow on April 13, he wrote: “During the three days of March 30-31 and April 1 fierce fighting took place in Baku. The fighters, from one side, were the Soviet Red Guard, the Red Army as organized by us, the Red Fleet, and the Armenian national units, and, from the other side, the Muslim “Wild Division” and armed Muslim bandit gangs… led by the Musavat Party… We were also helped by marine airplanes of the aviation school. We achieved splendid results during the fighting. The enemy is completely crushed… The casualties from both sides exceed three thousand men. Should they have been victorious in Baku, they would have declared the city as the capital of Azerbaijan, and would have disarmed and annihilated the entire non-Muslim population.”
As the result of atrocities only by the troops of Baku Soviets (Council), which was in the hands of Bolsheviks and Dashnaks, 72 villages were destroyed and approximately 8 thousand people were killed.
After the bloody events, as Shaumyan recalled, V.I. Lenin commended his “strong will and resolute policy”.
I. Orujev writes, with reference to Armenian historian Lalayan, that blood of approximately 60 thousand Azerbaijanis was spilled in 1918-1920 in Armenia. Only in Zangezur district the casualties were 3257 men killed, 2226 children, 1060 men, 794 women and 475 children wounded. Moreover, the genocide of Azerbaijanis was carried out in 1917-1920 in Baku, Shamakhi, Guba districts, in Nakhchivan, Karabakh, Zangezur, on 30 March 1918 three thousands of Azerbaijanis were killed in Guba.”
Armenian illegal, inhumane actions were supported by countries where Armenians resided, especially by Russia, whose expansionist policy accorded to the Armenian interests. Immediately after Sovietization of Armenia on November 2, 1920, Russia forcefully took away the districts of Zangezur, Goycha, Daralayaz and other territories from Azerbaijan, and annexed them to Armenia. The territory of Armenia expanded and reached 29 thd. sq. meters. The known village of Nuvedi and 11 other villages were transferred to Armenia in 1929. Thus, Armenian statehood came into being with a 29.8 thd. sq. m. area at the cost of the territory of Western Azerbaijan. As the result, the direct adjacent border between Turkey and Azerbaijan was eliminated.
Subsequent history demonstrated that Armenia was rather consistent in its inhumane policies. During the Tehran Conference in 1943 Armenian representatives, residing in Iran and other European countries, managed to gain Stalin’s audience and remind him that it was the time to declare territorial claims to Turkey. They also asked his permission to resettle in Armenia. Stalin promised them to take the necessary measures. On a number of occasions he tried to get Turkey involved in World War Two. At the end of the war on August 1, 1945, an article titled “Out Territorial Claims to Turkey” was published in “Pravda” newspaper, in which territorial claims were put forth to Turkey. Turkey was forced to seek support from the United States and Europe. This fact indicates that the Soviet state turned out to be a “worthy” successor of Tsarist Russia’s policy of aggression.
It should be noted that Armenian terrorist extends not only on Azerbaijanis. It is directed against the Turks, against the Jews, and… on September 5, 1972, Armenian terrorists carried out the act against Israeli athletes in Munich, which resulted in killing of many athletes.
It seems that Armenia borrowed the policy of Fascist Germany towards the annihilation of the Jews and received support from Nazis. Therefore the Armenians were dispersed around all regions of the world. Then, wishing to get hold of Azerbaijani lands and planning accordingly in advance, they started concentrating in areas where Azerbaijanis resided.
With this purpose, the myth of genocide of the Armenians by the Azerbaijanis was disseminated. Their claims that Muslims surrounded Armenian villages with sword and fire and inflicted horror and calamities, were groundless.
Like a terrible punishment for evil deeds did the Spitak “earthquake” “came to be”. 82 villages were destroyed by the forces of nature. Thus noted Masson in an article published in England.
During the Soviet period thousands of Azerbaijanis were deported from their lands. Special Decrees were developed for this purpose, such as the Decree of the Council of Ministries of USSR No. 4083 dated 23 December 1947 and No. 754 dated 10 March 1948. During the period of 1948-1953 many Azerbaijanis were forced to abandon their lands in Armenia, where they lived over 150 years and where their ancestors lived. Such decisions of the Center, of course, contradicted the Human Rights and were a cruelty against the Azerbaijanis.
I am sure of one thing that Armenian separatism, terrorism, and genocide, — through which countless number of Azerbaijanis suffered personal tragedies, lost their relatives and dear ones, became IDPs and refugees, — have entered the history of Azerbaijan as the most tragic times. They must be diligently researched and condemned so that the history of Mankind sees no more emulation of them.
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