Preparation and discussion of the bill on Azerbaijan’s sovereignty despite Moscow’s resistance, was carried out with great speed. Under pressure from the democratic forces the rule of law with the laws of included items on the agenda was to get out of SSR. According to the results of the debate,in the session of Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR which was held on September 23″About sovereignty of the Republic of Azerbaijan «law was adopted. Thus, it was first step towards independence on the basis of the principles of sovereignty. However, Moscow «About the sovereignty of the Republic of Azerbaijan ” accepted contrary to the law declared by the USSR Constitution so the law was repealed . The growing presence of the centrifugal tendencies from the government of the USSR, Moscow threatened and skillfully used as leverage against Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Armenians in Armenia and Nagorno- Karabakh, carried out the ethnic cleansing, could only be carried out with the support of Moscow. Indeed, in such circumstances, on December 1,1989, the Supreme Soviet of Armenia accepted a decision on Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia unification. The total 42 -day period, according to all the businesses and organizations of Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh has been under the authority of the relevant ministries and agencies. All regional and party committees in Nagorno-Karabakhafter joining the Communist Party of Armenia in the territory of the Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan flags, coat of arms, forms, names of towns and cities were canceled and Armenian flag has been removed. Dedicated to the unification of Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia soon “Artsakh” medal was established and a number of steps have been taken for the recognition of the sovereignty of the province. It’s not surprising that it has become as a result of the crisis in Azerbaijan, Moscow began to prepare the situation for preventing democratic movement.
From January 3 to 6, who was in Moscow representativesBarannikov, Ludayuskas,,Bobkov and others secretly came to Ganja, and met Soviet Defense Minister Yazov got specific tasks, “Typhoon”, or “Hurricane” operation plan prepared.
Because of without leadership and clear political line, the lack of a fixed position helped to carry out the wishes of Moscow “policy” implementation. Two Azerbaijanis were killed by Armenians in Baku on January 13 in response to the killing of Azerbaijanis in Baku on January 13 and 14, followed by the center of all the detailspaved the way for a comprehensive implementation of the devastation.
January 15, 1990, the chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Gorbachev declared a state of emergency in Nagorno-Karabakh and other regions signed a decree and in paragraph 7 of this decree was implementation of restricted hours includingBaku and Ganja and other housing curfew and offered to take the necessary measures. However, contrary to the decree of the USSR Supreme Soviet Presidium, as mentioned above, on January 19, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR on the basis of false decision of a non-binding January 15 adopted a decree January 20, from 00 hours to “a state of emergency in Baku. It has been established that the former USSR leader Gorbachev signed the decree 119 of the Constitution of the Union and grossly violated Article 71 of the Constitution of Azerbaijan SSR.
On January 19, by the KGB’s «Alfa” group organized to explode TV channel energy bloc for preventing declaration a state of emergency in Baku and official information to the people about bringing the troops into the city . However, at the same time, 26 pickets, barricades were set up in the city 34 of 60 troops, including the access road was cut in Salyan. Some of the leaders of the Popular Front said population to disperse, while others counseled to resist. 00 -hour curfew was imposed on January 20, the troops first from January 19 to 21 at the Gala brought into the city TÜRKAK. “Baku process ” directly leaded by USSR Defense Minister Dmitry Yazov , Internal Minister Vadim Bakatin the USSR , the Soviet KGB deputy chairman Philip Babkov .
Baku garrison troops, brought military units attacked the city. Heavy military equipment easily destroyed the barricades. Innocent people were shot and wounded in the streets- the old, women and children were murdered. The military fired men who were in the street by chance, residential homes, and emergency vehicles, burned corpses, madefun with their victims. Prohibited weapons, bullets were used. Therefore, hundreds of people are believed to have been lost. «Black January “there are a lot of mysteries in which has retained to this day. 69 volumes of 100 volumes material are about investigation of Baku, but still SSR Prosecutor’s Office didn’t not return them .
Troops sent to Baku kept in closed camps. They were not allowed them to communicate with people, and to be aware of the fact unarmed people. Soldiers and officers deployed in Baku were said that “Islamic fundamentalists «,” panturkists ” seized power in the Soviet Union , and therefore , it is necessary to destroy them . It is rooted in hatred against Azerbaijanis, they were activated by spirits. They cut hospitals’ lights,to prevent provide medical assistance to the wounded.
Till the declaration of a state of emergency, military forces have killed 82 people, 20 men were fatally wounded. It was determined that the “civil and political rights” under Article 1966 of the Act had to be declared. However, it was not done on purpose. After the mass murder, on 20 January 1990 at 5.30 o’clock in the morning on the radio about the state of emergency in Baku city has aired official information of commandant VDubinyak. However, on January 20, from 00 different types of tanks and armored cars used the Caspian navy amphibious removed from the city. This act of aggression against the Azerbaijani people was carried out in stages, resulted in pogroms perpetrated provocations.
After the declaration of a state of emergency on January 20, and more than 57 people were killed in the following days. Of the state of emergency in the regions, on January 25 and January 26 in the operation continued in Neftchale 2,Lankaran 6 people were killed.
Thus, as a result of illegal entering of troops in the capital and killed 147 people, injured 744 people, 841 people were illegally arrested, 112 of them were taken to various cities in the USSR remained in prison .200 houses and apartments, 80 automobiles, including ambulance cars were destroyed, and fires caused by the burning of large quantities of ammunition public and private property have been destroyedby the militaries.
Government, public and private properties were damaged in the same period, their prices were 5,637,286 rubles.
Bloody crimes against the people of the Soviet army had not ended yet. From the bay to protest the bloody massacre «Caspian Oil Fleet» encircled by the ships, warships had been fired ,dozens of sailors were arrested. ” Hero sailors were subjected repressions too.
It is clear from the documents that the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan , after the tragedy of January , the January 22 decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR 160 MPs at the request of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, an extraordinary session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted a number of documents have been drafted and ” on the Abolition of the state of emergency in Baku ,” the Supreme Soviet deployment of troops to ” clear violation of the sovereign rights of the Republic of Azerbaijan ” , Baku, USSR Supreme Soviet Presidium on the state of emergency in January 1990 decree ” an act of aggression ” , ” crimes against the people of Azerbaijan is rated ” . The statement of the events that took place on January 20 parliamentary commission to investigate the creation of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to consider the responsibility of those responsible for the blast of the decree dated January 15, 1990 in cities and districts of Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic envisaged by the suspension of the decree of January 19,so the country was required to pay for damages. However, these requirements were not met by the leadership of the former Soviet Union, kept troops in the country.
Zaur Əliyev ,
Diaspor və Lobbi Elmi Araşdırmalar mərkəzinin sədri,
Siyasi fəlsəfə doktoru .
Finally, it should be mentioned that led to the tragedy of January 20, according to the ” Soviet ” and factors referred to in the above list is just not enough . Everyone knows that the 20 January tragedy has deep historical roots.