The member of Azerbaijan National Sciences Academy professor
In 2011, writer and journalist Vera Begichevan’s article was published at august number of “Priroda i Svet” magazine, under the title of “Ararat”. At the first glance there is no any blameworthy in writing such an article intended for people who are interested in history and archeology unprofessionally. Usually authors write such articles in more easy way for understanding by unprofessionals. It is normal. It is obvious from the context of article that, author is very educated person about “Bible” and the history of Ancient East. In the article author used the names of Russian scientists such as an outstanding archeologist Vadim Mikhaylovhic Masson and the Igor Mikhaylovich Dyankov world-renown scientist on the history of Ancient East. Also she used a lot of quotes from them.
I knew not only their writings but also themselves well. So, during 1962-1964, I have met with them in a numerous scientific conferences. At that time I was post graduate student of Leningrad branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences, University of Archeology.
The author’s deep knowledge about “Bible” and about works of world-famed scientists is really estimable.
But it would be better to be careful with sources of information and not to falsify the historical facts. But unfortunately there have some ideas that not to base on historical facts but on the subjective imaginations.
All investigators including M.Dyankov stated that there were first cultural centers in the Central East. Then they began to enumerate the names of countries which currently situated in this area (Syria, Iraq, Palestine, Iran, etc). But all knows that the creators of the most ancient civilization were Sumerians. The formation of wheel, potter’s wheel and cuneiform writing is associated with their names. These inventions had contributed to future scientific achievements. We can see the impact of ancient Sumerians on the material cultural of Caucasus. So, investigators rightly associated the ancient archeological cultures of Leylatepe (Aerbaijan) and Maykop (Northern Caucasus) with Sumerian tribes which moved from Ancient Mesopotamia to these areas IV-III centuries BC. 1. Those times metal was newly used by people. The invention of metal had contributed to development of productivity a lot.
After the invention of metal, labor tools and weapons were prepared not from stone, bone or wood but metal (copper, bronze). Gradually metal turned to important thing of people’s life. Sumerians from Mesopotamia were searching for metal fields. It is assumed that, the camp of some Sumerians to Caucasus was due to searching for metal. The ancient monuments that belong to Leylatepe archeological culture were found in Karabakh, Western Azerbaijan and in Gabala (2011).
Ancient Sumerians had great impact on the development of future civilizations and on formation of nations’ cultures. There lived Armenians after Sumerians too. 2. There is no any connection of Mesopotamia Sumerian and Akkad tribes with Armenians, both ethnic and language aspects.
The author tells about the preparing of tolls from obsidian volcanic glass, by referring to V.M.Masson. It is true. People have been preparing the tools from flint and obsidian along with bones and woods, before invention of metal. Sometimes obsidian was carrying away from its fields. Masson states in one of his work that, in ancient times in Europe sometimes obsidian was carried 900 km away. But it seems this obsidian was bringing from more close sources but not from Mountainous Armenia. There are many places with obsidian fields. These kinds of fields is exists also in Azerbaijan and current Armenia. We usually come across with obsidians, while excavating ancient archeological monuments. In most cases they were bringing from fields that located at the distance of hundreds kilometers away. Obsidians mainly covering Ukrainian territory, found in the monuments of IV-III millennium Tripoli culture, brought from most likely not from Nagorno Armenia, but from closer fields.
The state which was formed near the Van lake IX century BC named Urartu was strengthen more under the power of king Argishti (BC 786-764) and enlarged its borders by surrounding lots of areas from Araz River. Argishti, was built Erebuni fortress in the current Yrervan city, in order to enslave local tribes in 782 BC. There was made a town named Argishtixnili. Most of the Urartu monuments are situated in current Turkey and north-west Iran (Southern Azerbaijan). An outstanding scientist and academic B.B.Pitrovski writes that, the heirs off Urartu are not only Armenians but also all ancient nations that lived there. Armenians are not closer to Urartu from ethnic and language aspect.
Kur-Araz archeological culture was formed between two rivers at second part of the IV millennium century BC and at III millennium BC began to encircle the Southern Caucasus, some parts of Northern Caucasus, north-west Iran and eastern Anatolia. 3. Armenians were not close to khurities from language aspect. Armenian language is from Indo-European language family and is close to Greek a bit. 4. In the article the Sun God is shown as the Indo-Europeans’ God. But in ancient times a lot of nations worshipped to Sun. Even American Hindus before Columbus worshipped to the Sun. The Sun was considering head of all Gods. But as we know Egyptians were not included to the Indo-European language family.
The language of Egyptians is including to Semitic language family. Thus, they hadn’t any relationship with Armenians. According to Strabo 2000 years ago Sun was considering as God in Albania, too and they worship to Sun God, too. Azeri Albanians are also haven’t any affinity with Armenians. There are a lot of investigation works about all these issues. For me it is obvious for all investigators. Till present no one has proved that Mitanis, creating onw state at Minor Asia in the middle of the II millennium BC, has some ties of relationship with Armenians.
I.M.Dyankov rightly writes that, the most ancient Armenians came to Minor Asia at the end of II millennium BC. The name of Armenians were used firstly VI century BC in written sources.
In this article it was stated that there was good relations between Minor Asia and Egypt. Of course, there is no doubt about it. This fact approves itself even in historical textbooks. Egyptian Pharaohs (especially under the power of XIX dynast during XIV – XIII centuries BC) were always making good relations with Khett state which is situated in Minor Asia. The iron dagger that found in Pharaoh Tutankhamun’s (who lived in the middle of XIV century BC) tomb also was bringing to Egypt especially due to these relations. 5. Egyptians themselves have been adopted the processing of iron too late.
Here we can also remind Egypt Pharaoh Ramzes’s (1301-1235 BC) military march against to Khetts at the beginning of the XIII century. But there is no any connection of these relations with Armenians.
There was talking about “World Flood” that related with Noah and there was stated that when Noah saw land, said in Armenian that “Erevas – it seems”. This imagination can only cause laughter. Who doesn’t know Noah legend about “World Flood”?! Even less educated people have read Bible’s “Asari atig” section “Existence”.
Everything was detailed written (in chapters 6-8). We can come across in cuneiform writing sources about this flood. Bu fəlakət haqqında mixi yazı mənbələrində də məlumatlara rast gəlinir. Archaeological excavations identified that this disaster happened not all over the world as in legend, but only after Ubeyed archaeological culture, in Mesapatomia (between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers) in the second half of the IV millennium BC.
As we know Mesopotamia is considering as the most ancient cultural centre. Differ from every year flooding Nile River in Egypt, the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers were flood sometimes. In rare cases floods got stronger and even two rivers had combined and large areas were inundated.
The legend about “World Flood” in the “Bible” was reflected on the cuneiform writings too. In 1850 archeologist Henry Layyard disclosed a library of Sinakheribi, the lord of Assyrian, Ninevia. There were thousands of clay plates with cuneiform writings in the two rooms of that library. After 3 years Rassmda, the assistant of Layyard, disclosed one more such a writing in the palace built by Assyrian king Assurbanapal. Generally the numbers of these plates were more than 25.000. After 15 years, the assistant of the guard of ancient findings George Smith while looking through all plates encountered a plate written on these words: “The ship sat on the top of the mountain”. It was unusual finding. He realized that, it is correlated with the information about “World Flood” in “Bible”. “Daily Telegraph” newspaper allocated 1000 pounds to Smith for his going to Nineveh and for searching for the rest parts of the plates. Consequently, Smith was able to restore great parts of clay plates about storm. There was written about the head of the generation called Utanpishtim who lived in in Shruppak city of Assyrian, situated on the Euphrates. According to Bible Ea God came to Utanpishtim and informed that there was expecting storm. Then he ordered to make big ship and make couples of animals, birds as well as from family members and seat them on that ship. Utanpishtim did it. Hen all processes happened as stated in “Existence”. 6 Of course, this “World Flood” happened only in Mesopotamia. At that times according to people the world is only consists of there.
In 1929 an English archeologist Leonard Willy while making investigation in ancient Ur city about this flood, disclosed thickness of 2.5 layer of slit. 7 The culture of Mesopotamia’s that period was belonging to Sumerians. Sumerians hadn’t any relation with Armenians. That is why as stated in article, Noah couldn’t used the words “Erevas seems” in Armenian. The toponymy of Erevan is correlted with this word. This is Armenians’ imagination.
The mountain that Noah’s ship stayed called Ararat. The author of article writes that, in the past there was not written “Ararat” in “Asari atik”. There was written as “Nisir” mountain on a plate with cuneiform writing. Currently, it is hard to identify that, to which height this name is related. It is also impossible to correlate the poem of Uruk, king of Gilgamesh, with Armenians. It would be better if it is shown that most of the information which is given in the article by Armenians doesn’t reflect historical realities and most of them are so-called. As we know, historical events are exaggerated more in the legends. Imaginations are creating according to legends.