During the I and II Russia-Iran war happened in the beginning of XIX century, in realization of occupation politics of Russia diplomats participated besides the army and one of them was A.S.Qriboedov. He played important role in preparation, ratification and realization of “Turkmencay” contract. This person who was well-known Russian writer and diplomat played important role in divide of Azerbaijan into two parts, in movement of Armenians to Azerbaijan territory and local population hated him. As a result he was victim of his own criminal activity.
Qriboedov wrote in his travel memories in august of 1828 that he is ready to sacrifice himself in the way of his unhappy nation, Armenians. Qriboedov whose apartment in Tbilisi situated in Armenian market and was friend of Armenian general Medetov, was in close relationship with more than 30 Armenians in his last two years, prepared different plans against Muslim population.
Though some Russian diplomats thought that the payment got from Iran for the war expanses after “Turkmencay” contract was priority, different from them Qriboedov thought that the arrangement of Armenians in Northern Azerbaijan territories is more important. He wanted to make faithful support for Russia moving Armenians to the boundary provinces with Iran and to change ethnic situation radically in Nakchivan, Irevan and Karabakah where Azerbaijan population lived.
There was a plan of movement about 80 thousand Russian kazaks to Northern Azerbaijan until 1827. But in period of the leadership of Qriboedov in diplomatic department in Tbilisi, he refused from that plan and gave idea of the movement of Armenians and gained approve of this thought in official circles. This process realized under the leadership of colonel Lazarev who was nationally Armenian in Irevan. In short time about 8 thousand Armenian families (40 thousand people) were arranged in Northern Azerbaijan territory. They made financial aid to removed Armenians from Russian budget and war expenses got from Iran. Generally, about 1 million Armenians were arranged in Northern Azerbaijan territory from 1828 to 1913 level by level.
After the tsar army occupied Tebriz in 1828, by initiative of Qriboedov regulation named “the regulation about the control of occupied territory (Southern Azerbaijan” was composed.
A.S.Qriboedov did his best to strengthen the positions of Russia not only in Southern Caucasus and Iran but also in Middle and Close East. The “directions project” composed by him served to these aims. In order to make rich under earth and on earth recourses of Southern Caucasus, but also Northern Azerbaijan the property of Russian colonels, A.S.Qriboedov made suggestions of establishment of Russian-Zakafkazia company in Tbilisi in 1827 and attracted well-known businessmen of Russia to this issue. He considered attracting well-known Georgian and Armenian businessmen to this issue also. As the local Muslim businessmen were not considered in this project, it shows that he had enmity relationship to the local population.
Russia incited the relationship between Turkey and Iran and tries to use this for their interests. They wanted to weaken two Muslim states making them enemy and realize their occupation intentions. One of the main ideologists of this violent politics was A.S.Qriboedov. Since spring of 1828 in order to insure the victory of tsar army in Russian-Turkey war, fulfill of the terms of “Turkmencay” contract was very important. Then A.S.Qriboedov enlarged his activity in order to use 25 thousand Russian army arranged in Southern Azerbaijan territory against the Turkey.
But opposite to Russia, England wanted to liquidate the contrasts between Iran and Turkey and to use the power of those countries against the Russia. After the Turkmencay agreement was signed, due to the order of I Nicolay senate decided to open the head consulate in Tebriz, “plenipotentiary ministry” in Tehran in 25th April of 1828. The appointment of A.S.Qriboedov as an ambassador in Iran shows how the tsar and high diplomatic circles of Russia believed in that person. He was different from all Russian diplomats appointed to Iran before and after him with the enmity relationship to local population and love to Armenians.
But the false thought of M.Nechkina is defended in Russian and Soviet history, also in modern history science that, as if A.S.Qriboedov was appointed to that position as he was supporter of decabrists and that is why tsar sent him far from the Petersburg. But facts refute these thoughts. The main reason why he was appointed ambassador to Iran was that he served the tsar faithfully and did his best as diplomat in realization of occupation politics.
The positive relation to A.S.Qriboedov in his country was his role in enlargement of boundaries of tsar Russia and as he was a writer. Even now there are few intellectuals who has negative attitude to the occupation politics of Russia for centuries. So, it would be better to look at Qriboedov not by eyes of Russian citizens, but from look of nations expose to tragedies because of violence and expose to occupation.
When Qriboedov was appointed as an ambassador he began to abuse his authorities, and show himself as direct leader. It resulted with the tragedy of him and his supporters. As he was appointed Plenipotentiary minister he went first to Tebriz to the Palace of Azerbaijan leader Abbas Mirze, then to Tehran. With his orders the people of ministry, interfered the internal affairs of Iran citizens, made wildness entering to any home they want with the pretext of moving Armenians to Northern Azerbaijan, due to the 13 and 15 paragraphs of Turkmencay contract the escape of Christian captives. In Qezvin city Russians entered to the home of Muslim religious man and wanted to take his wife violently who was German origin but accepted Islam. But when woman refused they were afraid of the anger of population and they left woman to go to her home.
A.S.Qriboedov made hard financial and moral strikes to Azerbaijan population making Armenian support politics. The very rich library in Middle East, Erdebil Darulirshad (Fair home) where very valuable handwritings were kept under the care of the son of Shah Ismail Shah Tehmasib and his grandson Shah Abbad, Sheykh Sedieddin library was robbed by Qriboedov and books were sent to Russia with the prefix of copy. Most of the handwritings there were rare cultural texts written on parchment and were illustrated with the pearls of miniature color art. After Abbasqulu Aga Bakhikhanov made the first catalogue of 166 valuable handwritings in Tbilisi, they were sent to Petersburg and even now they hold there. Besides this, there was throne of Abbas Mirze, 7 cannons made by hand and two paint masterpieces that were about the heroism of Abbas Mirze in fights among the things sent to Petersburg as trophy.
A.S.Qriboedov and his helpers that arrived to Tehran in 12th January of 1829 acted bad there also and disordered diplomatic norm wildly. They made noise with kazaks in drank form in streets and in markets, squeezed to homes with the prefix of looking for captives. Also the indifferent and pigheaded relation of Qriboedov to shakh, as he took Armenian named Mirze Yaqub (Markaryan) who was the head of head shahkh harem under his support, as he took two Armenian women from the home of vizier Allahyar khan and brought to the ambassador and refused even the request of shakh, did not return them and other activities made anger among city population.
By the call of Tehran religious leader more than hundred thousand people gathered in front of the ambassador building where Qriboedov and his band was hid. By the order of Qriboedov guards shoot fire to the people and as a result many people were wounded. The death of 14 year old child by the shoot of Russians made people angrier. Then entered to the building and killed Qriboedov and 53 worker of ambassador (15 of them were Armenians). The bodies of Qriboedov and other two Russians were drawn in the streets of capital tied to the horses for three days. Only in fourth tay some Armenians secretly buried bodies thrown to the suburb.
So, A.S.Qriboedov who was the ideologist of violent politics of Russians in Southern Caucasus also in Azerbaijan was victim of his own criminal activity. People who make criminal activity against Azerbaijan nation at last get their punishment. The tragedy of Qriboedov in XIX century, the Starovoytova in XX century and others should be lesson for most.