The process of deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia
After the Second World War as a result of Soviet Union’s land pretension to Turkey and active performance of Armenians in this process there were tragic events in Azerbaijanis’ life.
In November of 1945 the political bureau of SSR Central Committee gave permission to Armenians who live abroad come back to Armenia. In 2 December this decision of SSR National Commissariat Soviet was published in press. Such step was stepped as Soviet governance wanted to substantiate land pretension against to Turkey. I.Stalin moved about 300-400 thousand Armenian to Armenia. He wanted to declare to the world that Armenians moved back to their motherland but they do not have a place to live.
The pretension to eastern provinces of Turkey was declared by V. Molotov during his meeting with Turkish ambassador S.Sarper in 1945 7-18 June. Then urgently the measure of the land which SSR wanted to get from Turkey began, suitable maps were composed, and they did everything to deliver those lands between Armenia and Georgia. Due to the document prepared in 1945 august in SSR National Commissariat Soviet, they should get about 26 thousand kv.km. land from Turkey. The 20.5 thousand kv.km of those lands should be given to Armenia, another 5.5 thousand kv. Km to Georgia. After the Soviet Union was winner in the war, they were sure that they can take Kars and Ardahan provinces from Turkey. Even Political bureau appointed S.Kocinyan as the secretary of Kars province committee of Armenian Communist Party.
But decisiveness of Turkey in protection of lands shattered Soviet plans. Besides, Soviet Union could not move enough Armenian from abroad. In 1947 only 60 thousand Armenian were moved from abroad to Soviet Armenia. But when they saw the situation most of them wanted back. At last hundreds Armenian illegally run from the boundaries to Turkey.
In this situation, in 23 December of 1947 there was a decision about the move (deportation) of Azerbaijanis from Armenia in order to make a good condition for Armenians. They took Azerbaijanis’ homes, gardens, and farms by force. They only permitted to take only very important things with them like people who were exiled to Siberia and Kazaxistan.
But how was the attitude of local Azerbaijanis to this movement? The press of that period describes this process in a very good mood. But we think, the reference of “ about the mood of the movement to Azerbaijan SSR” which was signed by minister Qriqoryan and was prepared by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Armenian SSR in 3 March 1948, exactly reflects the Azerbaijanis’ attitude to this tragedy.
Considering that nations which were deported will discuss this issue in European Union, we represent this historical document to readers.
About the mood of the movement to Azerbaijan SSR among the Azerbaijani nation in Armenia.
Though there was a long period until the government declared officially about the movement of Azerbaijanis from Armenia to Azerbaijan SSR, there were talks about it among nation and there were wrong comments about the aims of this measure.
Our consideration that Azerbaijanis do not want to move to new place, come out from the facts that some of them go to the cemetery, cry on their relatives graves and pray not to move to new place.
Also there are facts that some collective farmers do not go to work, spoil their fruit gardens, demolish home and help buildings.
There is some information that, enemy elements use this negative mood, make anti-soviet provocations and say this movement is due to the facts that, if there will be war between the Soviet and Turkey Soviet Union do not believe in Azerbaijanis.
The situation is better after the government made official decision about the movement of some Azerbaijanis from Armenia to Azerbaijan SSR and soviet-party organizations made clear the aims of these measures. Especially in the regions of Vedi and Zengibasar situated in lowlands, it is observed that Azerbaijanis wish to move to Azerbaijan SSR as fast as it is possible.
But from the information we get it is known that, there is some negative mood among the Azerbaijan nation of Armenia SSR. It is specially observed in the mountainous regions like Basarkecer, Amasiya, Sisian and so on where the explanation works of Republic were made not so good. Some anti-Soviet mood elements who have the relationship behind the boundaries declare their disagreement to move and say their aims illegal run to Turkey.
It is typical that, all people who participated in collective farmers’ meetings where the decision about movement was declared and aims were clearly explained applauded this decision of government and declared that they are ready to move. But most of them after the meeting during personal conversations showed their disagreement about these measures.
This mood goes on in one side because of the bad explanation works, in other side because of the Azerbaijanis who live in high mountainous area of Armenia do not want to move to lowland regions of Azerbaijan SSR. They say that the climate condition is not suitable for them.
Besides, the problem of the payment of the property cost of Azerbaijanis who are considered to move or the permission for them to sell their property individually is not solved yet.
To solve problems like this most people come from regions to Yerevan but can not get answers. Because, due to the illness of the representative of Azerbaijan SSR Ministry Union comrade Mammedov, the work of the Movement Office in Armenian SSR went self-willed.
There are some dissatisfied thoughts of Azerbaijanis about their movement, also the attitude of Armenian part of nation to this measure below.
In Amasiya region
1. The tractor driver Huseynov Mammed Alesger set a task to other tractor drivers Mammedov Abbas, Amirov Meshedi and Temrahov Movsum to make spring seeding not qualified this year as Armenians will gather the harvest and they will not get anything from this harvest.
The villager of Kichik Tapagoz village, Qafar Ahmed told to the villagers during conversation: We-Azerbaijanis will be moved from Armenia, they will give our farm to the Armenians who come from abroad”.
The villager of the same village, Ismayilov Yusif Ahmed told by the conversation with the villagers Ahmedov Ismayil, Ismayilov Qafar and Ahmedov Humbet: “The movement of Azerbaijanis from Armenia is because the war between SSR and Turkey. Turkey will be attacker side”.
The villager of Mahardacuq village Mammedov Mehet Mahmud and the villager of Dashkerin village Ismayilov Ramazan Alekber (ex military captive) explained the movement of Azerbaijanis with the war between SSR and Turkey during the conversation with fellow-villagers.
The habitant of Quzukend village Ismayilov Xan Ahmed said during the conversations with collective workers: “They say that the movement will be voluntarily. This is wrong. They will behave to us like they behaved to Turks in Akhalkalaki. We will seat to the railway carriages and sent to Kazakistan. We should prepare to this”.
The habitant of Kicik Tepegoz village Ahmedov Ismayil said during the conversations with his fellow-villagers: “In Leninakan they say that we will be exiled to Kazakistan during 24 hours. But when nobody knows…”
The inhabitants of Civinli village: Mammedov Knyaz Mammed, Aliyev Mirza and Ashirov Mammed said during the conversation with collective workers: “ They will move us soon. But they are afraid to tell this. May be they think that collective farmers will run to Turkey. I do not know what to do. Was stupid that didn’t go to Turkey. Now you should move to the place which they tell you not you want”.
The chairman of collective government staff Karimov Ali from the same village told to collective farmers during the conversation: “The problem of movement of Azerbaijanis from Armenia to Azerbaijan is vain. Most of the collective workers do not want to move”.
In Ibish, Dashkerin and Civinli villages Mammedov Bayram Abdulla, Allahverdiyev Ali Abdulla and Mammedova Ceer Irza demolish their home and sell building materials.
In Zangibasar region
2. The habitant of Zengiler village Namazov Sultaneli Rahim told by conversation with the collective farmers of the village: “I have been in Qaraqishlaq village. There the representative of CC (Central committee) told that we- Azerbaijanis are moved from Armenia because they want to arrange Armenians from abroad in our places.”
Due to this most of the collective farmers of the village didn’t go to work. And the question “why you do not want to work?” of the chairmen of kolkhoz they answered: “ if Armenians move us from Armenia why we should work, for who?”
The habitant of Baxgiler village Yusubova Gullu Abbas told: “They want to move us and give our property and animals to Armenians. Some of villagers already sold their animals. I sold my cow too”.
The villager from the same village: Davidov Kubish, Mammedov Alosh, Abdullayev Abdulla, Hasanov Hasan, Tashev Sabo, Aliyev Yusif and Mammedov Abbas already refused to work.
In the village Goy Humber collective farmers Aliyev Abbas and Rahimov Ismayil told by the conversation near kolkhoz office: “we work in kolkhoz vainly. All our labor will go to Armenians. Generally it’s hard to live with Armenians. Because they oppress us and do not give normal work in kolkhoz”.
The habitant of Khirda Damirci village Mirzayev Meshedi Teymur Iskandar told bu conversation with Mammedov Ali, Hasanov Abdulali, Karimov Qulam and others: Azerbaijanis are not moved from Armenia because they want to arrange Armenians in their places. They are moved because during the war between Turkey and SSR soviet government doesn’t believe in us. The main reason of our movement is this. Because if there will be the war the most Azerbaijanis live near boundaries will run to Turkey”.
In Rancber village, collective farmer Nasirov Ibrahim had a conversation with Muxtarov Seyid, Tahmazov Esger, Ceferov Mahmud and others. He told: “ All Azerbaijanis will moved from Armenia until 1950. They do this as soviet government is afraid from Turkish attacks and do not believe in Azerbaijanis live near boundaries. Then, Soviet Armenia wants to gather all Armenians who live abroad as to form independent country which will not depend on the Soviet Union”.
The same Nasirov (the ex kulak) told by collective farmers: “ Due to the plan of the ex secretary of Armenia CC A.Khancanyan, all Armenians live abroad should come back and join Nakhcivan to Armenia. Also all Azerbaijanis live in Armenia should move to Azerbaijan. Nowadays I heard that Armenian government demanded to join Nakhcivan to Armenia but Azerbaijan government refused”.
The ex captive Mammedov Hamid (he has relatives in Turkey) from the village Shurakend told: “ Is it possible for Armenians and Azerbaijanis live together as a friend? There always was enmity between Azerbaijan and Armenia and there will be. That is why they decided to move Azerbaijanis from Armenia. I already demolished my home in order not to let anybody live there after me”.
The chairman of kolkhoz in Shurakend village Aliyev Humbat went to the region center, entered kolkhoz farm and told collective workers: “A commission from Azerbaijan came, nowadays all Azerbaijanis will be moved from Armenia. The reason why this movement is going slowly is that the secretary of Armenian CC didn’t agree to give farms and properties of collective workers to Azerbaijan. If he agreed, the problem of movement would be solved”.
Because of these words of kolkhoz chairman, kolkhoz workers didn’t go to work. They were telling: “ If we will not be the owner of our labor, why we should work vainly?”
There are facts, collective workers from Shurakend. Zengiler, Agamzali and other villages didn’t work too. In these villages some workers cut their fruit trees in the gardens.
Most of them refuse to pay taxes. The habitant of Zengiler village Suleymanov Seyfulla ( went back from exile in 1947) told to fellow-villagers in kolkhoz stable: “There is no use of our life in Armenia. If there will be the war all Armenians will kill us. It is better for us to move to Azerbaijan”.
The habitant of Saricalar village Khalilov Khalil Abuzer (he was arrested in 1942 because of desertedness) told: “Our kolkhoz workers pay taxes vainly. Anyway we will be moved. Soviet regime fleeced the nation. The politics of Bolsheviks is on lie and I think that we will not move to Azerbaijan. They will move us to Siberia and our property will go to the government”.
In Vedi region
3. The habitants of Boyuk Vedi village Abdullayeva Terlan, Mammedova Urbaba and Mammedov Khuda Baxshi demolished their home during the January and February. Eyvazob Mikail, Akber Mammedeli, Aliyev Bilal, Zeynalov Huseyn, Keleshov Oruj, Rza Ali and others cut most of the fruit trees in their gardens.
Among those villagers, Aliyev Humbet, Karimov Akber, Karimov Canbakish and others demolished the one room of their home.
Mustafayev Huseyn Bashir (with 2 family members) and Mustafayev Ismayil (3 family members) from Gerevan village went to live in Nakhcivan Autonomy SSR self-willingly.
It is important to note that, in that region the move mood among Azerbaijani nation is stronger. It is clear that about 9915 application for permission to move were given until 28 April. But due to the plan in 1948 only 500 people were considered to move from Armenia to Azerbaijan SSR.
4. In Circiraqli village, as a result of the provocation about Turkish war declaration against Soviet Union, kolkhoz workers didn’t go to work for three days in February.
In some villages of the region (Dashkend, Circaqli, Zod) there is such hearsay that, the secretary of Communist Party region committee Musayev, the chairman of region execution committee Mammedov and other Azerbaijani workers were substitute with Armenians.
As a result of these provocative hearsays, the kolkhoz workers of Zod village began to behave to work very careless. When the party organizer Nasirov Qurzeli Hamid and the chairman of village union Haciyev Bala Asger went from the village, it reflected very negative to the mood of village collective workers. Those people went to find place for themselves in Azerbaijan SSR after the movement.
The most of kolkhoz workers in Shishqaya village told that they do not want to move to Azerbaijan SSR.
There are negative hearsays among the Azerbaijan nation in Artashat, Karabakhlar, Oktembryan, Qafan, Meqri and Sisian regions. For example:
When the chairman of village union of Meqri region Vartanidzor village Hamidov Abdulla was asked: why the irrigation canal is not ready he answered: Why we should work on it, because to let it to “axpars”?
There are 20 Azerbaijani families in Artashat region Dargali village. They all said: Whatever happens to us, we will not leave Dargali village”.
In Axund Baovand village of that region, Azerbaijanis say: “We will not go anywhere from here. Let them kill us here”.
The chairman of kolkhoz in Siznak village Tagiyev Bashir expressed his mind that he doesn’t want to move to Azerbaijan. During the talk with fellow-villagers: “It is better to die in native land than to move to new place”.
The habitant of Urut village of Sisian region, Iskenderov Salman told to his friends while conversation that, as a Soviet citizen he has rights to live in any place in Soviet Union and he is not intend to leave his home, property and homeland. He told that due to the Stalin Constitution nobody has rights to make him move to another place.
The accountant of the village kolkhoz Farzeliyev Quvvet told almost the same things. He said that, he wrote to comrade Stalin that he doesn’t want to move to Azerbaijan.
Qurbanov Celal who lives in Comerdli village of Sisian region and the member of the Party, told after the meeting of kolkhoz workers where they declared that they want to move to Azerbaijan: “Most of people do not know how it is hot in Azerbaijan. In 1918-1919 we Azerbaijanis moved from Armenia to Nakhcivan. Then we were 14 people. After two years we were only three. Other 11 people died because of the hot and illness. That was Nakhcivan. Mingechevir is worse. We will have many victims”.
Qaniyeva Asli from Aravyus village of the region stated above told: “ If I will change my nationality and write I am Armenian then can I stay in Armenia and not to move to Mingechevir?”
There is some hearsay among Armenians about the reasons of movement of Azerbaijanis from Armenia. Some people tell different, nationalist hearsay.
For example, the teacher of the shoe technology in training-industry center of SSR Social Guarantee Minister Arakelyan Minas Aristakesovich: “It is doubtless that Azerbaijanis will be moves from Armenia. Firstly, Azerbaijanis who live in the shore of Araz and Akhuryan rivers will be moved. Then Azerbaijanis who live in Yerevan will be moved. It is clear why the villages situated near the boundaries are freed from Azerbaijanis. Because they disorder the state borders. Turkey forms espionage groups of them”.
The habitant of Yerevan city Mesropyan Yervand told to his neighbor: “It is important not only to move Azerbaijanis from Armenia but also from Nakhcivan. And they should join Nakhcivan to Armenia”.
Ordyan Shura Arutyunov, who is the wife of Axverdyan Levon (he is arrested for 6 years) told to her neighbors: “Soon Turkey, England and America will begin the war against the SSR. That is why they move Azerbaijanis who live in Armenia to Azerbaijan. Write to your neighbors in abroad not to come to Armenia”.
Sumbat who lives in Kirovakan city, came from France and was dashnak in past, told in the meeting where a group of Armenians participated in: “Once Dashnaklar wanted to join Nakhcivan to Armenia. But it didn’t realize. Now it is time to put that problem. Because there is not enough land in Armenia”.
In Yerevan, Leninakan and other cities some people told the same thoughts too.
The Minister of Internal Affairs of Armenia SSR, general-mayor Qriqoryan
3 May, 1948, Yerevan city
The process of deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia